8071 good binary options brokers broker job.html
14146 alpari co uk binary options robot avis.html
15502 best binary options trading signals software legal in uk.html
17705 how to withdraw money from binary options newsletter.html
11687 binary option pro signals system pimp.html
8477 dual real time binary option trading.html
5180 binary option robot funciona license key.html
5791 option fair binary techniques.html
6110 binary option trading system software system 04e.html
3477 10 minute binary option strategy strategies g.html
10955 how to claim binary options on taxes.html
5511 mastering hedge binary options call spread.html
11244 instant no deposit bonus binary option system j25.html
1772 binary options auto trader scam video.html
15328 auto trading binary revie.html
1939 binary options methods to conserve energy is it gambling.html
6791 binary options financial times.html
2264 binary option in forex trading replicator.html
17157 binary option system 3r 36.html
1427 binary options signals anyoption 400.html
19284 binary option mania 82.html
8186 how to win in binary options video training simulator.html
2480 binary options signals providers is it gambling.html
19891 binary option trading platform system 600.html
11097 free binary options white label.html
14613 binary domain ps3 or xbox 360.html
8842 introducing fast programs in binary option.html
14856 how to do binary options multiplier download.html
8493 binary options jason.html
4348 topic sure binary trading ecalculator.html
15775 gamma of a binary option us.html
7284 good price australian binary options platforms inexpensive sale.html
4087 binary options strategy wiki.html
740 three keys to binary options success 1952014.html
10794 10 binary option magnet funziona.html
552 list of best binary option brokers methods c.html
4791 how to win in binary option usa brokers.html
8516 easy xp american based binary options brokers.html
2391 how to win in binary options zero sum cheats.html
16916 winning binary options signals providers.html
8517 us binary options brokers make money traders.html
2838 san antonio spurs trade options.html
10115 what is a binary options 101 home study course 1 trader.html
17431 is binary options legal in the usa trading 2015.html
13107 no deposit binary option get 100 for free symbols.html
10493 profitable binary option strategies no deposit bonus.html
6867 binary option system quarterback with mt4.html
17226 trade options premarket.html
12283 how does one touch work in binary trading.html
2839 how does binary options broker make money signal service.html
2050 best stock for binary options usa regulated.html
17751 top 10 binary option websites extreme.html
11498 binary options system integrator 81.html
1258 best binary options canada minimum deposit.html
13818 binary options trading hack.html
12463 click click profit review binary options scam exposed.html
5115 forex testimonials of binary option earnings.html
1435 profitable binary options system signals 90 accuracy.html
6476 e t binary options maximum payout ltd.html
6617 binary option scalper prediction.html
17775 review of binary options trading examples.html
17822 details about binary options is a scam so scam them back.html
9615 the best binary options platforms.html
4397 mt4 binary option strategy erfahrung.html
2263 tag archives binary option fraud.html
17323 breakthrough options trading software binary money with option bot.html
2791 binary option trading algorithms affiliates.html
11491 binary options pro signals macbook.html
18202 uk free binary options training program brokers.html
18168 binary option magnet advanced software system 600.html
2298 u s binary options strategy brokers.html
19422 best book on binary option 4xp.html
16888 free binary option no deposit glossary.html
6294 tradesmarter binary options brokers europe.html
752 apexinvesting no deposit binary options broker.html
16539 lesson 2 the killing problem of binary options trading.html
6015 30 second profitable binary options strategy named the sandwich.html
19531 binary option system x3650 investments.html
3219 us binary option companies learning.html
13389 binary options brokers with free demo account robot ex4.html
10259 best binary options trading system learn profitable strategy.html
278 can you lose money on binary option bot 2.html
7807 binary options guide for beginners online course.html
11684 binary options buddy 20 revi.html
7624 free binary options trading systems interactive brokers.html
4952 how to do best end of day binary option trading strategy.html
12084 binary option methods crash.html
11007 5 min binary options trading strategy no loss mp4 2.html
5576 binary options trading tips and tricks profitable.html
18742 spotoption binary options white label platform.html
6179 abe cofnas binary option no risk.html
697 xp markets 1 hour binary options strategy.html
13209 secret of binary options auto trade software.html
9937 winning binary options wikipedia.html
19879 binary options live portal.html
1657 binary options vs vanilla u s.html
7063 binary options strategies i queen software review.html
1336 when to switch your binary options trading platform.html
12915 best income option strategies.html
2281 trade united states based binary options brokers on mt4.html
Independent reporting on human rights, environmental and conflict issues

Rethinking Coal (Multimedia)

By Rebecca Carroll for the_national_logo

CoalLeadChuck Nelson mined coal seams deep below the Appalachian hills of Boone County, West Virginia, for nearly 30 years before dark powder and chemical particulates drove him from his home – and to the other side of the contentious coal debate.

“Whenever the wind would blow, it would bring big clouds of black dust that would cover everything in your house,” Mr Nelson, 52, said. “We didn’t want to leave, but then again, if you stayed there, you’re breathing this fine dust. The dust you’d see on your table and stuff wasn’t the dust that was hurting you – it was the dust that you can’t see, the fine particles.”

Although the dust that hounded Mr Nelson and his neighbours was coming from a coal-cleaning facility, the retired miner says the mining of coal – especially the mountaintop removal method, which reshapes vistas, annihilates ecosystems and, in some cases, poisons water – is similarly destroying communities throughout the region.

Mountaintop mining involves clear-cutting mountains and removing their peaks to get at relatively thin seams of coal that are often high quality but too shallow to deep mine. The extra dirt and rock is dumped in nearby valleys, where it can clog streams.

Despite the efforts of mining companies to clean up exhausted mountaintop mine sites, the most biologically diverse temperate hardwood forests on Earth are, for the most part, replaced with non-native grasses and invasive shrubs, and toxic sludge ponds dot the landscape, according to Vivian Stockman, of the Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition.

The mining method that has divided West Virginia and other Appalachian coal states is just one facet of a debate that is gearing up to be as heated as health care reform, as lawmakers consider climate-inspired legislation that would fundamentally redefine the nation’s relationship with coal.

Coal has been dubbed the dirtiest of the fossil fuels. Deep mining is dangerous work and surface mining is environmentally hazardous, cleaning it requires toxic chemicals, and in the United States, coal burned for fuel releases more than a third of the country’s carbon dioxide emissions, which cause global warming. Worldwide, coal burned primarily for fuel is responsible for about 20 per cent of all greenhouse gas emissions, according to the Pew Center on Climate Change.

Burning coal also lets off air pollutants, such as sulphur and nitrogen oxide, which have respiratory and cardiac health implications, according to Alan Ducatman, a doctor and professor at the University of West Virginia.

Coal and mining also release mercury, selenium and other elements and compounds that poison water, cause illness and deform fish.

“Extraction, transportation, the cleaning, the burning – every bit of it kills people,” Mr Nelson, the retired miner, said.

Still, Americans and the rest of the world depend on coal. It is the source of about half the nation’s electricity and about 40 per cent of the world’s electricity, according to the US government and the Word Coal Institute. The United States is sitting on about a quarter of the world’s coal reserves, and US coal alone has more potential energy than all of the world’s known recoverable oil together, although reserve estimates may be undergoing a downwards revision.

“We are the Saudi Arabia of coal,” Barack Obama, the US president, said during his campaign last year, acknowledging US dependence on the fuel source when he vowed to fund research on technology that would capture the carbon dioxide released by burning coal and store it instead of letting it into the atmosphere.

His administration has already pumped billions of dollars into such research, and more is likely to result from legislation in Congress now, though it could be years or even decades before wide use of this “clean coal” technology is possible.

The House of Representatives narrowly passed a climate bill last month and the Senate is expected to consider similar legislation when it returns from recess in September. Debate could turn passionate, partly because there is a huge chasm between liberal and conservative views about what is necessary to minimise climate change, and also because oil companies and other industry groups are organising their employees and others to protest against the legislation.

This week about 3,500 energy workers attended an anti-climate-bill rally in Houston, Texas. The rally, sponsored by a coalition of oil and other companies and groups, was reportedly part of a multistate campaign opposing the bill.

In line with Mr Obama’s campaign promises, the legislation requires the implementation of a cap-and-trade system that would require heavy polluters to purchase the right to emit greenhouse gasses beyond a set allowance. The companies would presumably pass those costs on to consumers, and the system would admittedly change the way coal businesses operate.

“The coal industry is under attack and West Virginia is ground zero for that attack,” Bill Raney, the president of the West Virginia Coal Association, an industry group, wrote in a recent editorial for an industry publication called Mountaintop Mining.

West Virginia produces more coal than any state besides Wyoming, where the geology dictates a type of mining that has not drawn as much criticism from environmentalists and neighbouring rural populations as mountaintop removal has in Appalachia.

Speaking at his office in Charleston, West Virginia, Mr Raney said the climate bill in Congress had not been thought through. “It punishes the American people,” he said, referring to higher electricity costs for consumers. “I can’t see punishing the American people in this kind of economy.”

He also worries about those working in the mining industry. Although the number of direct miners in West Virginia has fallen from a peak of 120,000 in the 1920s to fewer than 20,000 today, Mr Raney says speciality contractors – electricians, mechanics, engineers, lorry drivers – make up another 35,000 jobs in a state with a population of about 1.8 million.

In his editorial, Mr Raney said, “left-wing radicals, professional protesters, a biased news media, federal agencies and the Obama administration” are attacking the coal industry with the goal of “bringing an end to the use of coal as an energy source”.

Indeed, that is what some people want. Al Gore, the former US vice president, supports moving towards an energy grid fed entirely by renewable fuel sources, such as the sun, wind, geothermal energy and water. He has said it is impossible to keep burning coal without sequestering the carbon dioxide, and that is not a technical reality at this point. “‘Clean coal’ is like ‘healthy cigarettes’ – it does not exist,” he said last year.

Greenpeace’s Michael Crocker worries that carbon sequestration technologies will come too late to avert climate disaster. Greenpeace and other environmental groups opposed the House bill, saying it set emissions caps too low and then further undermined the already lenient targets by letting polluters offset their emissions with activities that reduce greenhouse gases.

“It’s a massive giveaway to the coal industry – there’s just no getting around it,” Mr Crocker said. “It’s light years away from what the science says is needed. It’s a transfer of wealth from the taxpayer to companies that are already doing quite well.”

Dan Weiss, of the Center for American Progress, supports the current legislation and notes that even if Americans were weaned off coal, the fossil fuel would still be used in other countries, notably China and India, which together account for nearly half of coal consumption and are building new coal-powered plants at a blistering rate.

“We do need to develop carbon-capture-and-store technology, not only for the United States, but so it can be used in other counties as well,” he said.

Mr Nelson, the retired miner, maintains that coal, left alone in forest-covered mountains, is the best possible carbon sequestration, but he acknowledges that at this point, the United States is far too dependent on coal to just quit using it.

“You can’t just shut it down, because it supplies our electricity,” he said. “But we need to phase out coal because of the climate crisis. We want them to deep mine, if they’re going to mine.”



One Response to “Rethinking Coal (Multimedia)”

  1. Hello there, I found your blog by using Bing although trying to find a very similar make any difference, your internet-site came out, it seems great. I have included with favourites features and functions|put into this bookmarks.

Leave a Reply